South Arm’s OPEN WEBINARS, is a series of free online talks with geologists from around the world. These talks occur twice a month coving a range of topics and expertise. Join us for the next OPEN WEBINAR by staying in the loop on our social media accounts.





On the basis of the present research work carried out in El Gigante gold deposit, the pre and post-mineralisation tectonic phases affecting the interior of a shear zone of 2,5km of width limited by two faults belonging to the fault system Marañon of heading NO-SE, in which inside the fractures t that host the mineralized veins were developed. Further determining the metallogenic characteristics of said carboniferous orogenic deposit located in the Pataz mining district of the eastern cordillera of northern Peru.


Geological Engineer
PhD candidate at the Polytechnic University of Madrid

Víctor Sánchez is a Geologist graduated from the National University of Engineering, MBA and MSc Postgraduates, with more than 13 years of experience in Mining Exploration, in companies such as Buenaventura, Panamerican Silver, Marsa, Newmont, Poderosa, among others; developing Greenfield and Brownfield exploration projects in both the Western and the Oriental Andes, in Epithermal, Porphyry, Skarn, and Orogenic Deposits. Currently consultant of mining companies and PhD candidate at the Polytechnic University of Madrid.

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We record and upload most of our talks, so feel free to rewatch any OPEN WEBINAR that you might have missed on our YouTube channel.

Consumption of metals is ever-increasing globally, with new buildings, vehicles, and batteries powering the trend towards a greener and energy-efficient society.  With the increase in demand and limited capacity for recycling and re-using metals, exploration for mineral deposits that can sustain the need is imperative.  Deposits such as porphyry copper and epithermal systems are one such type that provides large tonnage copper with accessory elements such as gold, silver, molybdenum, as well as other essential materials.  While surface and near-surface porphyry deposits have been mined for decades, newer discoveries are proving difficult, with active exploration pushing towards ever deeper targets.  Identifying indicators of economic mineralization distally and under cover is imperative to exploration companies. Advances in petrography, petrophysics, lithochemistry, mineral composition and new deposit models provide new insights towards identifying potential targets. Exploration companies can use these features to make better and more strategic choices for targeting and drilling. 

Dr. Robert Lee is a porphyry copper geologist with extensive industry and academic experience. Robert conducted his PhD project at the El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in Northern Chile with John Dilles, which focused on the genesis of the deposit by obtaining new ages of formation and mineralization and detailed chemical composition of the porphyry rocks and their mineral components.  He currently oversees all geochronlogy and mineral composition at MDRU along with research pertaining to mineral exploration.  Robert has worked on projects throughout British Columbia and has worked in mineral exploration in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. 

This talk took place Friday 5 March 2021, 11:00 to 12:00 (GMT+11)

Dr Antoine Cate is an expert in the analysis of geoscientific data. He combines a strong geological background with the use of various univariate and multivariate data analysis tools including machine learning. He is highly proficient in field structural mapping of ore deposits, and in the analysis and interpretation of structural geology data. He has completed multivariate analysis of datasets in structural geology, environmental science, mineral exploration and deposit geology.

Machine Learning is a current buzzword in mineral exploration, especially for prospectivity analysis and targeting. This presentation aims at explaining what machine learning prospectivity is, how it works, what are its advantages and what are its limitations.

This talk took place Friday 19 February 2021, 11:00 to 12:00 (GMT+11)


South Arm’s first OPEN WEBINAR for the year 2021, where Dr. Molly Turko presented an interesting talk titled “Structural analysis of the Wichita uplift and structures in the southeast Anadarko Basin, southern Oklahoma.”

Dr. Molly Turko has over 10 years of experience in the oil and gas industry and is a subject matter expert in structural geology. Molly is currently a team member of Applied Stratigraphix as their Structural Geology Expert, along with consulting for Turko Tectonics and Structural Geology. This talk took place on Friday, 22 January 2021, 09:00 to 10:00 (Melbourne GMT+11) 


Structural analysis of the Wichita uplift and structures in the southeast Anadarko Basin, southern Oklahoma

Regional structural transects across the Wichita Uplift and adjacent Anadarko Basin show the relationship between thick-skinned basement-involved structures and thin-skinned detached fold-thrust structures. Slip from the basement-involved structures in the Wichita Uplift is transferred along two major detachments into the Anadarko Basin. Along the southwestern margin of the Anadarko Basin, the Wichita Uplift is marked by a zone of frontal imbricates forming a triangular wedge with most of the slip dissipated along the Wichita front. Paleozoic units show tight folding with overturned beds in the frontal zone. The uplift is episodic as indicated by the truncation of major faults along unconformities and their subsequent reactivation.

In contrast, the southeast margin shows that a significant part of the slip is transferred into structures in the basin. These structures are tight faulted-detachment folds that formed above a major detachment within the Springer Shale, cored by broader structures detaching at the base of the Arbuckle Group. The faulted-detachment folds formed within the thin-bedded Pennsylvanian-age clastic units while the broad structures formed in pre-Pennsylvanian units dominated by thick carbonate units. These two main structural packages underwent differential, but simultaneous, shortening due to a forward-shear along the frontal faults of the Wichita Uplift.

Pre-existing normal faults of Precambrian-Cambrian age were either reactivated along the Wichita Uplift, or controlled the location of the Pennsylvanian age structures in the Anadarko Basin. Progressive rotation of regional stresses from NE-SW to a more ENE-WSW direction during the Pennsylvanian uplift influenced the tectonic history of the area. As the regional stresses rotated to ENE-WSW, the more E-W oriented structures in the Anadarko Basin were cut by strike-slip faults that linked down into the pre-existing normal faults. The strike-slip faults were accompanied by normal faulting with Virgilian-age sediments filling the accommodation space and indicating the timing of the strike-slip movement.

2D and 3D seismic, well log data, and surface geology were used to evaluate the structural styles of the Wichita Uplift and the Anadarko Basin, and allowed for an interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the region.


A successful exploration implies to have very clear the characteristics that present the hydrothermal alteration that is associated to these deposits, because it is very important to recognize its alteration-mineralization features and at the same time to take into account the different “pathfinders” that reflect the porphyry type mineralization that can be outcropping or hidden. Within the characteristics of the porphyry type mineralization, the great amplitude of hydrothermal alteration that affects the deposits and the surrounding rocks, a characteristic that in the case of the discovery of the gold porphyry La Colosa (Colombia), in spite of the fact that the geochemical rock sampling during the first follow up was not forceful in showing the mineralization, the questioning that the great hydrothermal alteration that we were observing, we did not see it reflected in that first sampling, prompted us to do a second follow up and take more rock samples in order to identify, so far, the largest gold porphyry in the world, La Colosa with 30 Moz Au.


Australia is well-known for its beautiful beaches, great views, and kangaroos, but also for its mineral wealth, the early recognition of its mineral prospectivity was held in 1848, the first discovery of Gold in the country, now called the Goldfields region. In 2016, Australia was the top producer for iron ore, bauxite and lithium, and it is second producer of Gold in the world, and the top of gold world ranking for resources. In the last two years, several discoveries of copper-gold deposits have been made by several joint ventures between major companies and junior exploration companies, therefore Australia has become once again in one of the greatest places to make discoveries. Let’s talk about what these successful exploration companies have in common!